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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 35  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 1-4

Ocular manifestations in children with developmental delay at a tertiary center in South India

Department of Ophthalmology, Yenepoya Medical College, Deralakatte, Mangalore, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Rashmi Jain
Department of Ophthalmology, Yenepoya Medical College, Deralakatte, Mangalore - 575 013, Karnataka
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1319-4534.325773

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PURPOSE: Developmental delay occurs when a child exhibits a significant delay in the acquisition of milestones, in one or more domains of development. This study was planned to determine the distribution of ocular disorders and to assess the correlation between ocular findings and systemic co morbidity, antenatal and postnatal factors, and perinatal history. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included children with developmental delay <16 years of age. All children underwent complete ophthalmological evaluation including full cycloplegic refraction. Vision assessment was done as appropriate for age. Spearman's correlation test was used to analyze the correlation between ocular findings and causes for developmental delay and antenatal, perinatal, and postnatal history. RESULTS: A total of 128 children were evaluated. Mean age of the study group was 5.59 ± 2.12 years, 64.8% were males, and 76.6% of children were from rural area. Ocular findings were seen in 110 (85.93%) children, refractive error being the most common finding seen in 87 children (astigmatism n = 47, hypermetropia n = 28, and myopia n = 12). Strabismus was seen in 65 children, esotropia being the most common (n = 36). Vision impairment was present in 39.84% of children. Other ocular findings included disc pallor, cataract, ptosis, amblyopia, keratoconus, telecanthus, lagophthalmos, blepharitis, retinitis pigmentosa, and morning glory syndrome. Spearman's correlation showed no statistical association between ocular findings and various causes for developmental delay. There was a weak negative correlation between antenatal history, mode of delivery, gestational age, and ocular findings. CONCLUSION: More than three-fourths of children with developmental delay had ocular findings which necessitates the need for ocular evaluation.

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